Forging can be hot (up to 1,260°C) or cold. Cold forging includes processes like bending, drawing, heading, coining, and extruding, which can create many different shapes. However, it requires stronger equipment and may need extra annealing steps.
Despite some drawbacks, cold forging is generally superior to hot forging in terms of dimensional control, product uniformity, surface finish, and contamination. However, it is not suitable for metals that are very strong, such as steel with high carbon content. For cost-effectiveness, cold forging is typically only used for parts that weigh 5 kg or less. Automated processing is possible for symmetrical parts that weigh up to 3 kg. Some of the most common materials used in cold forging include lower-alloy and carbon steels, and alloys of aluminum, brass, and bronze.
Rolled ring forging is a process where a thick, round piece of metal is punched to create a donut shape, which is then rolled or pounded into a thin ring. Ring diameters can start from less than one meter to over 10 meters.
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