The process of using Magnesium alloys in manufacturing the production of metal parts is called Magnesium die casting. Magnesium alloys provide a wide variety of casting and offer the strong capability.
Thus, it is preferred in industries including automotive, food, dairy, machinery, medical, plumbing, and watering. Moreover, one can find many magnesium casting parts and components in the industries like mining, petrochemical, electrical, energy, aerospace, submarine, etc.
Since magnesium has a high melting point, the process of Magnesium die-casting is carried out in a cold chamber to avoid damage to the machine. The process is carried out using a step-by-step procedure in a well-monitored and well-supervised manner. Initially, the metal alloys are melted at high temperatures in a furnace. Then, the molten magnesium is poured inside a shot cylinder that is connected to a die cavity.
The piston accelerates the ability of molten magnesium to enter the die cavity. For a period of time, it is left for solidification and later on cooling. After cooling, it is ejected from the machine. This step helps to retrieve the casting. The excess amount of metal from the casting is taken out through trimming or machining. Thus, the magnesium die-casting process is used to obtain the best quality metal cast parts.
REASONS FOR CHOOSING MAGNESIUM FOR THE DIE-CASTING
Magnesium is 75% lighter when compared to steel. It offers no particular loss of strength. The castings of Magnesium can meet high tolerances that aren’t possible with steel. It is considered a compatible material for complex, thin-walled, net-shape, and near-net-shape castings. Moreover, it gives strong dimensional stability, and hence it is preferred. Even, the tooling costs are lower for magnesium castings. It allows to assemble multiple components as a single unit; hence, reducing welding and assembly costs. Also, it offers component rigidity; thus, providing its retention capacity for a long time. For Aluminum, Magnesium is 33% lighter. As a result, one can see the improvised mechanical properties of the component.
Additionally, the machines function better with it and so the process becomes easier. It is also more resistant to corrosion and shows appreciable performance in large, thin-wall, net-shape complex parts. Compared to plastic, Magnesium offers greater strength. It is much stiffer than advanced engineering plastics. It not only offers energy resistance features but also wear resistance and higher temperature resistance. Therefore, Magnesium die-casting shows quite developed properties in comparison to Steel, Aluminum, and Plastic. These are the reasons industrialists choose Magnesium for die casting.
The most commonly used Magnesium alloys in the die-casting process
The most often specified alloy for magnesium die casting is alloy AZ91D, which has a nominal composition of 9% aluminum and 1% zinc. It demonstrates a superb fusion of resistance to corrosion, castability, and mechanical qualities. Strict limitations on three metallic impurities are enforced in order to provide corrosion resistance. Because iron, copper, and nickel are only found in extremely small quantities, primary magnesium must be used to create the AZ91D alloy.
Applications needing strong elongation, toughness, and impact resistance along with a reasonable amount of strength and exceptional corrosion resistance call for the usage of alloys AM60B, AM50A, and AM20. Due to these characteristics, it is the material of choice for components that need to be ductile and robust. As the amount of aluminum in a material diminishes, ductility rises at the expense of castability and strength. To suit the needs of the application, the alloy with the maximum aluminum content should be used.
Hopefully, the details will help comprehend the Magnesium Die casting Process. Also, the mentioned types of die casting alloys and the overall elements can help determine the most suitable casting method or grade that suits your requirements.